《时政大视野》特约专题

资料来源于美国维基百科 |  王西川 编译

导语:  旅居北美独立学者王西川先生花了大量时间和精力,收集编译了自2020年11月3日美国大选之日起,特朗普律师团队在美国7个州所发起的以各种名义指控大选舞弊的案例,几乎囊括了所有案件的起因和結果。这个历史性的第一手美国各级法院的裁决或驳回的结果,是一份史实性的文献资料,向简体中文圈的学人展示了一个历史真相。不管是挺川还是反川的人士,以后的争议都可以查阅此文,避免无实证的无谓争辩。观点可以保持各异,事实终究可以澄清。(馀葛瑞)

 

本文概述

在2020年美国总统大选之后,时任总统唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)等人的竞选活动败诉了86宗诉讼[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6],涉及竞选程序,投票计算和投票多个州的认证过程,包括亚利桑那州,乔治亚州,密歇根州,内华达州,宾夕法尼亚州和威斯康星州。[7]

由于缺乏证据,几乎所有诉讼都被驳回或撤消 [8];法官,律师和其他观察员将诉讼描述为“轻描淡写” [9]和“无可靠证据”[10]。在一个例子中,特朗普竞选团队和其他寻求连任的团体一天之内在六个州集体输掉了多起案件[11]。最初只有一项裁决是对特朗普有利的:宾夕法尼亚州首次投票选民若想“修改”选票,必须提供适当的身份证明。这项裁决只影响了很少的选票[2],而后来此裁决也被宾夕法尼亚州最高法院推翻。[12]


特朗普,他的律师和他的支持者[13]在公开声明中断言大选舞弊,尽管在法庭上他们很少做出这样的断言[14]。除威斯康星州[15]以外的每个州,都在12月8日的法定“安全港”截止日期之前在法律上解决了争议并认证了投票结果。特朗普法律团队曾表示,不会将这个选举认证的截止日期视为对其选举结果进行诉讼的截止日期[16] [17] [18]。然后,在德克萨斯州检察长肯·帕克斯顿(Ken Paxton)提起诉讼的三天后,最高法院于12月11日拒绝听取特朗普及其共和党同盟支持的诉讼,诉讼要求在四个州拒绝选举结果。[19]


背景介绍

在选举前后,特朗普的竞选活动在包括亚利桑那州,乔治亚州,密歇根州,内华达州,宾夕法尼亚州,德克萨斯州和威斯康星州在内的多个州提起了一系列诉讼,对选举程序,计票和投票证明程序进行了辩论[7]。许多案件很快被驳回,律师和其他观察员指出,诉讼不太可能对选举结果产生影响[23] [24] [25] [26]。特朗普,他的支持者和他的律师在公开声明中断言大选舞弊。[27] [28] [29] [30]

特朗普的竞选活动在11月13日遭受了数次挫折。国土安全部发表声明说,这次选举是“美国历史上最安全的一次”,并且没有证据表明任何投票制度有问题[31]。指派十六名联邦检察官来监督选举,致信司法部长威廉·巴尔(William Barr),说没有证据表明存在广泛的违规行为。竞选活动在宾夕法尼亚州雇用的一家律师事务所因担心他们被用来破坏选举程序而退出。竞选在亚利桑那州放弃了“ Sharpiegate”诉讼。密歇根州韦恩县的一名法官拒绝中止获胜者的投票计数或证明。在宾夕法尼亚州,法官拒绝在蒙哥马利县和费城县阻止8,927封邮寄票。[32]

11月16日,由保守派律师詹姆斯·波普(James Bopp)在佐治亚州,威斯康星州,密歇根州和宾夕法尼亚州组织的四起诉讼在联邦上诉法院表示选民无法提出某些宪法要求之后被撤销[33]。席德尼·鲍威尔(Sidney Powell)在11月22日的特朗普竞选活动中被辞去律师职务[34]。

截至11月27日,自大选日以来的法律诉讼中有30多项已经失败 [36];到12月14日,已有50宗诉讼被驳回。

佐治亚州和密歇根州的联邦法官拒绝了亲特朗普律师西德尼·鲍威尔(Sidney Powell)在12月7日推翻选举结果的最后努力[37]。美国密歇根州东区地方法院法官琳达·帕克(Linda Parker)写道:“他的诉讼似乎不是在实现原告寻求的救济,因为大部分救济超出了本法院的权力,而更多地是关于其影响关于人民对民主进程的信念及其对我们政府的信任的指控。”在美国佐治亚州北部地区地方法院,蒂莫西·C·巴顿(Timothy C. Batten Sr.)法官写道:“他们希望该法院将其判决替代为投票支持乔·拜登的两百五十万选民…我不愿意这样做。” [38]

由特朗普提名的法官也驳回了特朗普竞选活动在法庭上提出的要求和救济。[39]

投票机公司Dominion投票系统和Smartmatic威胁要提起法律诉讼,声称它们因特朗普和右翼媒体公司Fox,Newsmax和OAN而受到律师的诽谤,后者提出了关于选举技术公司的阴谋论。[40] 12月18日,特朗普竞选活动的律师告诉员工,与诉讼有关的所有与西德尼·鲍威尔和Dominion投票系统有关的文件都应保存。[41]


法律分析与反应

洛约拉法学院教授贾斯汀·莱维特(Justin Levitt)表示:“在这里,我几乎看不到任何东西,而且有可能影响最终结果。” [42]俄亥俄州立大学选举法教授内德·佛利(Ned Foley)指出:“你必须有一项法律主张,并且你必须有证据支持这一主张。而且那还不存在。” [26]肯塔基大学法学教授约书亚·道格拉斯说诉讼“似乎都毫无价值”。[43]专门负责国家安全的律师布拉德利·莫斯(Bradley P. Moss)写道,这些诉讼“继续违抗理性和逻辑,纯粹是在戏弄……这完全是一场闹剧”。[44]加州大学欧文分校的选举法教授里克·哈森说:“到目前为止,没有证据表明欺诈可能会影响选举结果。” [25]巴里·理查德(Barry Richard)在2000年大选中协助监督了由共和党领导的佛罗里达州重新计票的工作,他称这些诉讼“毫无根据”,并表示诉讼“不会成功”; [45]曾为戈尔工作的律师格里·麦克唐纳(Gerry McDonough)竞选活动说,特朗普“没有机会推翻选举结果,这是不可能的。” [46]网络安全和基础设施安全局发表声明,称2020年大选“是美国历史上最安全的一次”,并指出“没有证据表明任何投票制度都删除或丢失了选票,变更了选票或以任何方式受到损害” 。[31]

琼斯·戴(Jones Day)是为特朗普(Trump)竞选团队提供支持的众多律师事务所之一,之前曾经专门代理宾夕法尼亚民主党诉博科瓦尔(47)案,这次因其在选举诉讼中的“短视”行为而受到内部批评: “这种诉讼会削弱公众对选举结果的信心”,[48] [49]从而破坏选举结果” 。[31] 该事务所因而退出代理合同。


下面分州介绍每一起诉讼

亚利桑纳州 2020大选诉讼

1,阿奎莱拉诉选举官员

11月4日的诉讼

2020年11月4日,选民Laurie Aguilera向Maricopa县提起诉讼(CV2020-014083),以寻求让选民有机会改正她的选票,因为该选票用尖头蘸水笔标记。[24]阿奎莱拉(Aguilera)说,由于只提供尖水笔来标记选票,她的选票(因墨迹过粗)没有被计入,计票员人员取消了她的投票,又拒绝让她填写新选票; [25]然而县选举官员否认了这一指控。[26]这些说法在社交媒体上被冠以“ 尖笔门”Sharpiegate”的称号。该县选票记录员阿德里安·丰特斯(Adrian Fontes)称其为“无稽之谈”。丰特斯说,选票的设计甚至可以在发生水笔渗漏的情况下保持有效。县官员将这场争议描述为虚假声索,他表示用毡尖笔标记选票完全可以输入制表。[27]  11月7日,原告自愿撤消了诉讼。[24]

11月12日的诉讼

2020年11月12日,劳里·阿奎莱拉(Laurie Aguilera)联合另一位亚利桑那州选民多诺万·德罗比纳(Donovan Drobina)提起了第二次诉讼(No. CV2020-014562);该诉讼是在亚利桑那州高等法院针对Maricopa县计票员Adrian Fontes提起的。原告声称,他们的选票没有由电子制表系统计算,实际上他们的选票是由选举工作人员制表的。然而州法律要求他们在正常工作时也要用机器计算选票。作为补救措施,他们要求进行新的投票,并向公众开放人工审查程序。[28] [29]马里科帕县高级法院法官玛格丽特·马奥尼(Margaret Mahoney)于11月20日驳回了诉讼,裁定争议中的两张投票不会影响选举结果。[28]

2,亚利桑那共和党诉选举官员

2020年11月12日,

亚利桑那州共和党对马里科帕县记者阿德里安·丰特斯(Adrian Fontes)提起诉讼,要求对该县进行选票审计。[30] [31] [32] 11月19日,因为缺乏证据,诉讼因有为原告怀有偏见而被驳回,共和党要求对马里科帕县实施计票禁止令的请求被驳回。[33]法官约翰·汉纳(John Hannah)在裁决中邀请州务卿办公室向亚利桑那州共和党寻求律师费的支付,理由是该州法律允许当事方“无充分理由”或“单方面或主要地以延误或骚扰为目的的诉讼提出索赔。”。[34]

3,2020年12月2日,亚利桑那州的选民和共和党亚利桑那州总统选举团的一名候选人在联邦法院对州长,州务卿和其他亚利桑那州选举官员提起诉讼。根据斯坦福大学-麻省理工学院“健康选举计划”,原告称:“选举观察员未能充分核实选票上的签名,马里科帕县选民争议裁判员是党派成员,Dominion的备份文件没有监护权链,Dominion机器本身也在状态评估中出现错误。”原告要求法院取消对亚利桑那州选举结果的资格认证,或下令亚利桑那州对特朗普选举团进行认证。[35] [36]悉尼·鲍威尔(Sidney Powell)代表原告提起诉讼。[37]

12月9日,联邦法官戴安娜·休梅特瓦(Diane Humetewa)裁定原告缺乏法律地位,所提起的不当指控是“基本缺失相关的或可靠的证据”,而是“主要基于匿名证人,传闻和对无关选举的不相关分析” ”。法官指出了所提出的是欺诈性指控,并称其“在特指性和合理性上均告失败”。法官裁定,亚利桑那州3百万以上的选民“在这个较晚的日期”接受诉讼将对他们的权利造成“极端的,完全前所未有的”伤害。[38] [39]

4,2020年12月7日,亚利桑那州居民在Pinal County高等法院对州长Doug Ducey和国务卿Katie Hobbs等州官员提起诉讼。[40]原告指称被告涉嫌“大规模选举欺诈” [40],涉及选举程序的安全性不足和外国干预[41],并要求进行审计并阻止将州选举结果传送给选举团。[42]法官凯文·怀特(Kevin White)于12月15日驳回了诉讼,认为原告提起诉讼的时间太晚,并且由于她未登记投票而没有提起告诉的法律地位。[40] [41] [42]

5,小川普代表总统诉州务卿霍布斯

2020年11月4日,以被称为“ Sharpiegate”尖笔门”为由,[43] [44]特朗普针对亚利桑那州国务卿凯蒂·霍布斯提起“ Sharpie尖蘸笔诉讼”, [45]指称带有合法标记但带有阴湿墨迹的合法选票被了扔出去。[46]社交媒体上的故事浮出水面,称选举工作人员故意让选民使用尖蘸笔标记选票,因此他们的选票不会被计算在内。作为回应,马里科帕县宣布:“对于我们的制表设备而言,“湿沾度不是问题,并且选票上的行列间距可确保阴湿墨迹不会影响您的投票”。 11月4日,亚利桑那州检察长Mark Brnovich宣布展开调查;第二天,他说:“我们现在相信使用Sharpie尖蘸笔标记不会导致剥夺公民权。” [47] [48]该网络传言也被国土安全部公开揭穿辟谣。[49] [50]

特朗普竞选活动要求对公众保密他们的证据,但法官拒绝允许保密。[51]特朗普竞选活动还指出,他们有投票区内的录像带,但是,法律规定如果录像是在有选民在场的投票区75英尺(23 m)内拍摄,这些录像带即是非法的。[51]特朗普竞选活动试图提交他们收集到的宣誓书,但承认其中一些宣誓书是“假”或“垃圾邮件”。法官拒绝接受宣誓书作为证据,称其不可靠。[52]此外,在讯问证人期间,没有任何证人表示他们有理由相信自己的投票被不当丢弃。唯一出现的不当行为是选举工作者为他们按下按钮,禁止他们录像。[52]

在听证会上,特朗普竞选活动的律师科里·兰霍夫(Kory Langhofer)表示,原告“不是在指控欺诈”或“任何人都在偷选举”,而是在争辩“善意错误”。[53]

11月13日,关于总统选票的诉讼被原告撤销,这是因为很明显,本案有可能要影响投票的票数为(191票),不能克服拜登在该州的获胜率(当时胜出11,414票,当时未计票数为10,315)。[ 54]

6,史蒂文森诉杜西

2020年12月4日,亚利桑那州选举诚信协会(AEIA)的成员在马里科帕县的亚利桑那州高等法院提起选举竞赛诉讼(CV2020-096490)。诉讼对总共371,498票提出了质疑,声称这些票是非法计数的。原告要求法院撤消对亚利桑那州选举结果的认证,并发布禁制令,以阻止州选举官员对选举进行认证,以便亚利桑那州议会可以任命选举人团。[55] 

12月7日,原告提出了自愿撤诉的通知。[56]

7,沃德诉杰克逊

2020年11月30日,亚利桑那州选民兼州共和党主席凯利·沃德(Kelli Ward)向马里科帕县亚利桑那州高等法院提起诉讼[57]。沃德(Ward)质疑签名验证程序,声称选举工作人员不适合验证签名。沃德还挑战了投票复制过程,因为两党县选举工作人员在将投票机无法处理的选票进行人工复制的过程中,表现得不称职,并声称选民观察员不被允许查看整个过程。[58] [59] 作为一种补救措施,沃德要求法院取消整个选举结果,拜登在那里以10,457票多数获得了胜选,[60]而应该将选举人的选票授予特朗普。[61]律师马克·埃里亚斯(Marc Elias)代表被告(11位拜登(Biden)选举团)出庭,他辩护称,沃德(Ward)提出的问题是属于“花园品种错误”(主观臆想的过错,并无法律意义)。结果兰德尔·华纳法官于12月4日驳回了诉讼。[62] [63]

在亚利桑那州最高法院驳回了渥德的上诉,认为她没有提供不当行为的任何证据后,沃德向最高法院提出上诉。[64] 


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佐治亚州2020大选法律诉讼

  1. Boland诉Raffensperger(州务卿)

2020年11月30日,佐治亚州选民保罗·安德鲁·博兰(Paul Andrew Boland)在州法院起诉州选举官员。博兰德声称,被告没有按照选举法的低排斥率条款进行签名比照核查,而且约有20,000名不住在佐治亚州的人在该州投了票。博兰要求法院对选票进行审核,或者取消该州选举结果的认证。[8] [23] [29]在法庭上,辩方不同意签名匹配不当的指控,认为没有证据显示匹配有误。并辩称境外投票选民都具有有合法理由(如驻军,外派)暂时离开佐治亚。[30]

州高级法院法官埃米莉·R·理查森(Emily K. Richardson)驳回了该诉讼[31],他判决原告没诉讼资格,没有提出合理陈述,诉讼没有及时提出或针对正确的当事方。[30] [32]博兰德向格鲁吉亚最高法院提出上诉,该法院在他的上诉书上驳回了他的要求。[32] [33]

  1. 布鲁克斯诉Mahoney案

2020年11月11日,佐治亚州的四名选民在联邦地方法院起诉了查塔姆县选举委员会主席托马斯·马奥尼。选民们声称软件故障导致选票计算错误,并要求法院阻止某些县证明其总统选举结果。

11月16日,原告自愿撤诉。[6] [7] [8] [9]

  1. 强化选举法的执行和投票的安全性

–2020年11月3日7:00 pm后投入或收到的选票

这场涉及53张票的诉讼[3]是由特朗普竞选活动和佐治亚共和党于11月4日在佐治亚州东部查塔姆县巡回法庭提出的。[1] [34]竞选活动声称,两名目击者目睹了超时的选票与准时选票的不当混合。高等法院法官小詹姆斯·巴斯·[2]在听取了查塔姆县选举委员会主席的证词后,拒绝了该请求,并于11月5日驳回了诉讼。[3]法官裁定没有证据表明存在超时投出和收到的选票。[5]

  1. 皮尔森诉州长坎普

2020年11月25日,由青少年保守派激进主义者C. J. Pearson领导的一群选民起诉了佐治亚州州长Brian Kemp和其他州官员。原告声称使用在美国提供投票软件和硬件的公司Dominion Voting Systems违反了州和联邦法律,并且Dominion“是由外国寡头和独裁者创立的,目的是确保对选票进行计算机化的选票处理和操纵确保委内瑞拉独裁者雨果·查韦斯(HugoChávez)永远不会输掉任何选举。原告声称Dominion被用来操纵Joe Biden的选票,并要求法院停止对选举结果的证明,并命令Kemp州长将唐纳德·特朗普总统认证为佐治亚州的获胜者。保守派律师西德尼·鲍威尔(Sidney Powell)向联邦法院提起了这一所谓的“克拉肯(Kraken)”诉讼,[35] [16] [36] [37] [38]

Dominion公开回应逐项驳斥了这些主张的,称其为“毫无根据,毫无意义,[并且]在实际操作上是不可能的”。[39]

佐州联邦11月29日举行了法庭听证会,此后,美国地方法官蒂莫西·巴滕(Timothy Batten)命令科布,格温内特和切诺基各县封存其投票机,并避免对其数据进行重置。但是他拒绝立即答应被告要求下令对投票机进行法律检查。[40] [41] [42]双方均向美国第十一巡回上诉法院提出了针对该决定的部分上诉(案件号20-14480)。[43] 12月4日,第十一巡回法院驳回了上诉,[44]理由是上诉法院没有管辖权来审理此类上诉。[45]

该裁决作出后不久,巴滕法官于12月7日在地方法院举行了一次听证会,以处理原告检查投票机的请求。当天他即席撤消了本案[17] [46] [37]法官裁定原告没有法律地位提起诉讼,提起诉讼也为时已晚(因为Dominion机器是几个月前已经通过采用的),并在错误的地点提起了诉讼(在正确的地点是州法院)。[18]法官说,无论如何,鲍威尔寻求的旨在取消佐治亚州选举结果认证的诉求是无法实现的。[19]


12月8日,原告在美国第十一巡回上诉法院对巴滕的决定提出了上诉(案件号20-14579)[47]。

美国最高法院案卷编号20-816(在Re Coreco Ja’Qan Pearson等人的请愿书中)

* 2020年12月11日:原告提出了要求履行令状的请求。 (应于2021年1月14日答复)

* 2020年12月15日:Coreco Ja’Qan Pearson等人的补充资料。已提交。

* 2020年12月18日:合并和加快对紧急上诉的审议,并在法院批准上诉的情况下加快案情通报和口头辩论的议案,并加快对Coreco Ja’Qan Pearson的议案的审议等,已提交。

* 2021年1月11日:上诉人提出的加快审议的动议被拒绝

* 2021年1月19日:联合规定撤销Coreco Ja’Qan Pearson等人的上诉。已提交。 [49]

5.特朗普诉Raffensperger州务卿

另请参阅:特朗普–拉芬斯佩格丑闻

2020年12月4日,特朗普竞选活动在富尔顿县高等法院对州选举官员提起诉讼。[50]原告指称被告多次违反乔治亚州的选举法和州宪法,[51]并声称存在数千张非法选票。[52]作为补救措施,原告要求法院取消选举结果,并下令重新进行选举。[52] [52] [53]该案最初是由于原告未能支付申请费和完成必要的文书工作而被拒绝的,但后来即被更正。[52] [53]

特朗普与乔治亚州共和党主席大卫·谢弗[22]一起,于12月11日向乔治亚州最高法院提出上诉[a],要求其在接下来的三天内(即在选举团投票之前)审理此案;第二天,法院一致拒绝审理此案,哈罗德·梅尔顿大法官认定“上诉人没有能够证明这是需要援引我们原始管辖权的极为罕见的案件之一”。[55] [22]

  1. 林伍德诉拉芬斯佩格

该诉讼是由L. Lin Wood Jr.于11月13日向美国佐治亚州北部地区地方法院提起的。[56]原告声称,格鲁吉亚的投票结果存在缺陷,应作废或修改(即,删除改正缺陷的缺席选票),因为佐治亚州国务卿布拉德·拉芬斯珀格和其他选举官员没有法定权力更改选举法以放宽签名核实要求或允许修正缺席选票。对投票程序的这些更改是由于2020年3月6日与乔治亚州民主党的一项较早的诉讼达成和解而提出的。[57] [58]本案修正后的投诉于2020年11月16日再次提交,其中增加了有关自动重新计票的其他投诉。[59]

11月19日,法官史蒂芬·格里姆伯格(Steven Grimberg)裁定伍德缺乏法律依据提起诉讼,提起诉讼为时已晚,并且未提出可能胜诉的论点。[60]法官指出,伍德未能证明他本人受到了伤害,而他的提议将“以无数种方式伤害公众权利”。[61]这名由特朗普任命的法官得出这样的结论:在这么晚的时间段,“没有事实或法律依据”,来阻止佐治亚州对其选举结果的认证(乔·拜登击败唐纳德·特朗普),因为这将“滋生混乱和潜在的剥夺公民权利的行为” “。[62]

12月5日,美国第十一巡回上诉法院的三名法官组成的小组一致确认了地区法院的裁决,因为伍德“未能提出特定的伤害”,并且在任何情况下,他的推迟认证请求都是没有根据的。因为佐治亚州政府当时已经认证了其选举结果。[63] [64]

伍德于12月11日向最高法院提起诉讼。[65]

  1. 特朗普诉肯普等人

2020年12月31日提起诉讼,告诉佐州选举舞弊,[25]这是在特朗普-拉芬斯珀格中打出富有争议的电话的三天前。 1月5日法庭举行听证会后,川普提出对选举结果的初步禁令的动议被法庭否决。[66]

2021年1月7日,国会发生暴力事件后,特朗普以“协议和解”为由自愿撤销了诉讼。[27] [28]拉芬斯佩格(Raffensperger)对获得任何此类“和解协议”提出异议,但不反对自愿撤销诉讼。[67]

拉芬斯珀格说:“特朗普竞选活动没有向法庭提供他们的任何证据和证人,也没有在宣誓下进行质询,而是明智地决定采取最佳方案,撤回他们的琐碎无望的诉讼案件。” [68]

(据分析,此案是在为川普在11月3日向州务卿电话施压作铺垫。) — 译注


宾夕法尼亚州2020大选诉讼

1,巴尼特诉劳伦斯案

2020年11月4日,第四届国会地方候选人凯西·巴内特(Kathy Barnette)在联邦地方法院起诉蒙哥马利县官员。巴尼特(Barnette)声称,该县的选举委员会通过检查选票信封中是否有信息缺失,这被称为“预先调查”,并为选民提供了纠正此类缺陷的机会,从而违反了州选举法。巴内特还声称该行为违反了联邦平等保护条款,因为只有部分选民才有修正选票的机会。巴尼特要求该县拒绝任何受此影响的投票。 11月6日,蒂莫西·萨维奇(Timothy Savage)法官拒绝了原告的请求,本案撤销。[45] [46] [47]

2,唐纳德·J·特朗普总统诉Boockvar

地方法院案

唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J.Trump)代表总统诉Boockvar案是11月9日特朗普针对宾夕法尼亚州民主县的竞选活动提起的诉讼。竞选运动对选举结果提出异议,指控并要求法院禁止认证结果。[48] [49]代表特朗普竞选活动的俄亥俄州波特波特·赖特·莫里斯与亚瑟律师事务所于11月13日撤出了诉讼[50],11月16日,同时也是特朗普竞选活动成员的共和党律师琳达·科恩斯要求法官允许退出此案。[a] [51] [52]总体而言,该案在一周之内共有三组不同的律师操盘。[53]

当法官问特朗普的律师鲁迪·朱利安尼(Rudy Giuliani)关于原告为什么并不基于选举欺诈而提出诉告时,朱利安尼回答说“这不是欺诈案”。[54]朱利安尼以前曾在选举中公开宣称“欺诈”,“绝对欺诈”。[55]特朗普的资深律师琳达·科恩斯(Linda Kerns)也同意,该诉讼并非基于“欺诈或不当行为指控”。[56]

马修·布兰恩法官(Matthew W. Brann)于11月21日以具有偏见为理由驳回了该案,并判定“毫无事实根据和投机性指控,缺失法律论据”,并指出“在美利坚合众国,这些论据不足以剥夺一个选民的权利,更諻论剥夺第六大人口州的所有选民……我们的人民的权利,法律和体制就要求更多更多的证据”。[53] [57] [58]他将特朗普团队的论点比作“弗兰肯斯坦的怪物”,并把要求取消的将近七百万张选票资格的补救措施定性为“与主张的基本权利毫无关联”。[59]

上诉法院案

特朗普竞选活动和其他原告人于11月22日向美国第三巡回上诉法院提出上诉。[60] [61] [62]在其修订的摘要中,竞选团要求取消宾州选举的结果,并允许他们从150万个邮件选票中抽取样本以确定有缺陷的票数,并从拜登的票数中减去这些票。[63]

11月27日,第三巡回上诉法院的三名法官组成的小组驳回了特朗普竞选活动取消宾夕法尼亚州投票认证的企图,法官们裁定特朗普竞选活动的“主张没有根据”。法官小组指出,特朗普竞选活动所挑战的选票数量比拜登的获胜数量少得多,而且“它从未声索选举欺诈或任何由非法选民投下的选票。” [64]

法官小组赞扬地方法院在处理此案时“快速,公正,耐心”。[65]它裁定地方法院在阻止特朗普竞选活动对其申诉进行第二次修正是正确的。[64]小组表示,拟议的修正案的声称并未显示特朗普竞选活动的待遇比拜登竞选活动更糟的事实。[66]法官组指出,总的来说,“将选举称为不公平并不会把它变成不公正平。指控不公需要更具体的证词,然后加以证据证明。然而在这里我们都没有看见”。

在三名上诉法院法官中,发表意见的斯蒂芬诺斯·比巴斯由特朗普任命,而法官布鲁克斯·史密斯和迈克尔·夏格莱斯则由共和党总统乔治·W·布什任命。[66]随后特朗普竞选律师詹娜·埃利斯(Jenna Ellis)对判决作出反应,谴责“宾夕法尼亚州的激进司法机构”。埃利斯还说,将向美国最高法院提起上诉。[64] [67] [68] 

3,唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J.Trump)代表总统诉Boockvar县选举委

唐纳德·J·特朗普竞选团队对宾夕法尼亚州国务卿凯西·博克瓦尔(Kathy Boockvar)发布的选民指导提出了质疑,它告诉选民他们必须在11月12日之前提供身份证明,以便对选票进行点算,比州法律规定的截止日期晚了三天。法官裁定,如果未在11月9日前没有出示身份证明,则不计票。该裁决影响了少数未计入投票数的迟到选票。[69] [70] [71]

4,唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J.Trump)代表总统诉雄鹿市选举委

唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J.) [72] [73]在2020年11月9日向地区法庭提诉,存在没有注明日期或投票人地址的投票,或者没有用保密的封印盖章的选票,应判选票选举无效。然而在庭上特朗普竞选活动的律师已签署协议,“他们没有指控,也没有证据表明与被质疑的选票有关的任何欺诈行为。” [74]他们还宣布,他们并未指控死者的选票,与这些选票有关的“不当行为”或“恶意行为”,没有证据表明发生这种情况。[74]

罗伯特·巴尔迪法官(Robert O. Baldi)驳回了原告的申诉,并下令计算所有选票。[72] [75] [76]特朗普竞选活动对该决定提出了上诉; 11月25日,宾州法院还裁定应计算所有选票。[77]

特朗普竞选活动在宾夕法尼亚州最高法院提交了紧急请愿书,要求对此案进行复审,[78] [79],12月8日,法院驳回了上诉请求。[73]

5,唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J.Trump)诉总统诉蒙哥马利·蒂(Montgomery 县选举委

唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J.Trump)在11月5日在该州初审法院提起的诉讼,特朗普竞选活动旨在阻止蒙哥马利县计票过程。县选举委员会允许大约600名选民在选举日之前补充填写了选票信封上的缺失信息。竞选运动要求取消这批选票资格,但法官裁定向选民提供的改正指示符合选举法。[80] [81]

在法庭听证会上,法官向特朗普竞选活动的律师乔纳森·戈德斯坦(Jonathan Goldstein)询问,戈德斯坦是否“声称存在欺诈行为”或“选举委对这592位投票选民有任何不当或不当影响”。律师戈德斯坦回答“没有。” [82]

戈德斯坦在法庭上的答复与他提起本案的诉状一致,该诉状没有指控欺诈,只是由于某些选票的某些封面缺陷而对某些选票的计数提出了技术挑战。[83]县法院裁定应计票。[84]然而其后,宾夕法尼亚州上诉联邦法院对另一县的裁定,出于戈德斯坦在雄鹿县辩护书中提出的相同理由,对阿勒格尼县的某些选票进行类似质疑的原因,判该选票不符合宾夕法尼亚州的法律,相应选票不予计数。[85]

6,唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. )  诉 费城是县 Bd。选举委

唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J.Trump)诉费城县选举委员会,在11月5日向联邦法院提起的诉讼,特朗普竞选活动要求停止在费城进行的计票。川普竞选活动争辩说,选举委不允许在点票室里参加民意观察员,但后来又承认有些观察员在场。原告没有针对选票的提出问题,这个案件是根据双方共同的协议和解,实际上共和党和民主党都可以派最多60名民意测验员出席观察投票。[86] [87]特朗普后来宣称的观察员没有被允许进入宾夕法尼亚州的投票点票室的说法与法庭调查结果相矛盾。[88]

(后续)特朗普竞选案中的一名律师杰罗姆·马库斯(Jerome Marcus)于2021年1月7日国会骚乱后向联邦法院提出了一项动议,称特朗普“已利用律师的服务实施犯罪”,因此马库斯申请法庭批准其退出该案。[89] [90]

7,2020年11月3日的缺席选票和邮寄选票中,川普团队11月10日在宾州初审法院提出的五项诉讼系列,其中特朗普竞选活动试图取消该州已计数的8,000多个缺席选票的资格。[94]原因是选票上虽然有由选民签名的信封,但缺少其他信息。詹姆斯·克鲁姆利什法官否认对这类选票的所有挑战,指出信封表面信息缺失并不影响选票的有效性。[95]经上诉此案移交给宾夕法尼亚州最高法院,该法院于11月23日驳回了特朗普竞选活动的上诉。[96]

8,投票观察员案 是11月3日提起的诉讼,其中特朗普竞选活动选举观察员能够更紧密地观看投票计数。初审法院裁定该指控无效,距离15英尺(4.6 m)就足够了。上诉后,宾夕法尼亚州联邦法院支持川普竞选活动诉求,并命令观察员从6英尺(1.8 m)的距离观看。 11月9日,州选举委向宾夕法尼亚州最高法院提起上诉。[98] [99] [100] [101] [102]

宾夕法尼亚州最高法院于11月17日以5比2裁定反对特朗普竞选活动指控,称宾夕法尼亚州法律仅要求观察员应被允许进入点票的房间,但不得在观察员与点票台之间设定最小距离。观察距离由当地县官员决定。首席法官托马斯·赛勒(Thomas Saylor)表示异议,称他将宣布这一问题为争议性。[103]

9,北安普敦市禁令性动议。共和党委员会

2020年11月3日,一个由共和党候选人和官员组成的团体在州法院进行了口头动议,要求法院阻止北安普敦选举委员会认定已被取消的部分选票,以帮助选民改正他们的不合规选票;法院驳回了动议。[104] [105]

10,凯利诉宾夕法尼亚州

2020年11月22日,美国众议员迈克·凯利(Mike Kelly)和其他六名共和党代表在宾夕法尼亚州联邦法院提起诉讼,声称宾夕法尼亚州议会无权根据州宪法接受无需理由的邮寄投票。[106 ]他们起诉停止选民资格认证,直到问题得以解决。有关立法为第77号法案(2019年10月31日法案,P.L 552,第77号)。[107]它于2019年10月31日获得通过,并允许在没有提供任何理由的情况下以邮件方式进行投票,而以前理由是必需的。该法案在共和党多数议会中获得了两党党的几乎一致支持。 [108]宾夕法尼亚州加入了其他31个州和华盛顿特区,通过了无需借口邮寄方式投票。 [107]

11月25日,帕特里夏·麦卡洛(Patricia McCullough)法官裁定在听证会之前中止进一步的州认证。州检察长对此作出回应,立即向州最高法院提起上诉,[109]从而自动中止了麦卡洛法官的命令。[110] 11月25日,州务卿发布了11月24日的新闻稿,其中指出:“继星期一晚些时候所有67个县提交的总统选举投票认证书之后,国务卿凯西·博克瓦尔今天对11月3日的结果进行了认证[111]

在发布了新闻稿(未更新州官方网站的认证结果)之后,被告试图就此案进行辩论。 11月27日,麦卡洛(McCullough)法官发表了一项意见,解释了其阻止认证程序的裁决,认为存在合理的合宪性论点,认证程序尚未完成,并且认证公告仅适用于总统/副总统竞选。而不包括其他候选人。[112] [113]

宾夕法尼亚州最高法院11月28日裁定一致推翻州法院阻止宾夕法尼亚州选举结果的认证的命令。[114]宾夕法尼亚州最高法院还驳回了共和党人的要求,即要求宾夕法尼亚州的所有250万张邮寄选票无效,或令该州的所有690万张选票无效,并由该州的共和党控制的立法机关另外选出总统选举团。[115] [116]最高法判决的理由是,共和党人对法律提出质疑太迟了。自从2019年10月生效以来,他们一直未对法律提出质疑,但是只有在2020年11月选举结果“看起来很明显不利”时才提起诉讼。因此,共和党人在处理此案时没有采取“应尽的努力”,另外690万选民的宪法权利不可因此而被剥夺。[116] [117]

凯利(Kelly)向美国最高法院提起上诉,并于2020年12月3日将塞缪尔·阿里托(Samuel Alito)法官设定的最后期限为12月9日,即宾夕法尼亚州官员对安全期之日的第二天作出回应,以要求驳回该州的邮寄投票结果,甚至可能是整个选举。[118] [119]但是,最后期限后来更改为12月8日上午9点,所以在安全港期限内。为了适应这一变化,宾州的律师指出:“原告(凯利和其他人)要求本法院进行共和国历史上最具戏剧性,破坏性的司法权力援引之一。从未有法院发布命令废除州长对总统选举结果的认证。判决是有充分理由的。他说:“一旦打开总统选举结果司法无效的大门,将很难再次关闭那扇门。 由于行使这种司法权力而导致公众对我国宪法秩序的信任丧失是无法估量的。” [120]

2020年12月8日,最高法院以一句话,”未决定受理”拒绝了该上诉请求; [121] [122] [123]在高等法院作出决定时,宾夕法尼亚州的选举结果已得到拜登胜选的认证。[ 124] [125]

11,Pirkle诉Wolf (宾州州长)

2020年11月10日,四名选民起诉,要求在费城,蒙哥马利,特拉华州和阿勒格尼县禁止点票。原告声称该州通过允许各州对邮寄投票采取不同的做法,从而侵犯了国家的平等保护权。但是其间代表特朗普竞选活动的律师事务所波特·赖特(Porter Wright)请求退出。 11月16日,原告自愿撤消了诉讼。原告在此诉讼中的主张与Brooks诉Mahoney诉Bally诉Whitmer诉相似。这些诉讼都是由保守派律师詹姆斯·波普(James Bopp)提起的。原告还引用了特朗普诉博科瓦尔案。[126] [98] [127]

12,Ziccarelli诉Allegheny 县选举委

11月12日的诉讼

2020年11月12日,共和党州参议院议员候选人妮可·齐卡雷利(Nicole Ziccarelli)在州法院起诉阿勒格尼县选举委员会。原告声称,董事会不正确地计数了2349张未由选民注明日期的邮寄选票,她并试图将这些选票排除在外。 2020年11月18日,该州普通法院驳回了原告的请求,要求对票数进行计数。 Ziccarelli于11月19日对该决定提出上诉;第二天,该州的联邦法院裁定,选举法要求选民在选票上注明日期,有关的2349张选票不应计算在内。[128] [129]

宾夕法尼亚州最高法院将2020年11月3日的大选举中以“缺席者和邮寄选票”案(上列7)与此案合并,[128]并于11月23日确认了美国阿勒格尼县委员会的决定。选举委获准计算所涉及的2349票。[130]

11月16日的诉讼

2020年11月16日,共和党州参议员候选人妮可·齐卡雷利(Nicole Ziccarelli)在州法院针对阿勒格尼县选举委员会提起了第二次诉讼。 Ziccarelli质疑选委会的决定,以计算缺少两个签名(选票和信封)之一的270张临时选票。普通上诉法院裁定应该计票。 Ziccarelli提出上诉;宾州法院推翻了下级法院的裁决,裁定所涉法规同时需要两个签字,该批选票不予不计票。 11月23日,宾夕法尼亚州最高法院拒绝了选举委员会的上诉请求。[131]

(这成为川普团队取胜的少数案例之一,涉及270张选票,分属两位候选人)。

*************************

密歇根州2020总统大选诉讼

  1. Bailey诉Antrim County

2020年11月23日,威廉·贝利对安特里姆县提起诉讼。[27]法官凯文·埃尔森海默(Kevin Elsenheimer)下令对该县的选举设备进行法医检查,[28]并允许密歇根州国务卿乔塞琳·本森(Jocelyn Benson)介入此案。[29]这些机器是由小拉塞尔·詹姆斯·拉姆斯兰(Russell James Ramsland)取证的,法官下令发布拉姆斯兰的报告。[30] [31] 12月14日,密歇根州高级选举官员谴责了这份长达23页的报告。[32]

  1. 巴利诉惠特默州长

2020年11月11日,密歇根州的登记选民在联邦地方法院起诉州长格蕾琴·惠特默(Gretchen Whitmer)。选民们声称存在各种违规行为,包括在投票过程中排挤了民意观察员,并要求不计入韦恩,英厄姆和华士腾淖县的选举结果。申诉引用了类似的案件Costantino诉Benson和Trump诉Benson。 然而在11月16日,原告自愿撤诉。[33] [34] [35] [36] [37]

  1. Costantino诉底特律市选举委

11月9日,共和党民意测验挑战者在韦恩县巡回法院对底特律选举官员提起诉讼,指控在TCF中心进行计票时存在欺诈和不当行为,并要求法院停止对韦恩县选举结果的认证。[38]首席法官蒂莫西·肯尼(Timothy M. Kenny)拒绝了请起诉,认为“ 原告对事件的解释不正确且不可信。” [39]法官听取被告方陈述后指出,原告并未完全理解“ TCF对缺席投票制表的处理程序”,因为他们没有参加10月29日举行的一次介绍情况会议。[40]原告再向该州的上诉法院提起上诉,该法院拒绝审理此案; [41] 11月23日,密歇根州最高法院也拒绝审理此案上诉。[42]

  1. 唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J.Trump)总统诉本森(州务卿)

特朗普竞选活动于11月4日在密歇根州法院针对密歇根州国务卿乔斯琳·本森(Jocelyn Benson)提起诉讼,[43]声称其选举观察员没有按照密歇根州法律的要求参与查看选票计数,并要求法院停止计票数票。[44] [45]


11月6日,辛西娅·斯蒂芬斯(Cynthia Stephens)法官驳回了这一请求,[46]在其裁决中指出,“点票工作已经完成,而补救完全无法实行”。[47]法官还指出,官方申诉并未说明据称阻止选举观察员观察密歇根州选票的行为是“为什么”,“何时,何地或由谁”具体实施。事实陈述不清。[48]

  1. 唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J.Trump)总统诉本森(州务卿)

2020年11月11日,特朗普竞选活动在联邦地方法院对密歇根州国务卿乔斯林·本森(Jocelyn Benson)提起诉讼[49]。川普竞选活动要求法院阻止密歇根州的投票结果认证,重复在君士坦丁堡县诉底特律一案中发出的指控。竞选活动从选举观察员那里取得了数百页的宣誓证书[50],其中表述的是“描述孤立的不满和察觉到的不正当行为,而非系统性的欺诈行为。” [39] 11月19日,特朗普竞选活动自愿撤回了此案。[39] [51]

  1. 约翰逊诉本森(联邦法院)

2020年11月16日,密歇根州的登记选民和选举结果挑战者在联邦地方法院起诉州务卿乔斯林·本森。原告声称州务卿在选举日造成了投票欺诈,并要求阻止对投票结果的验证,直到可以进行审核为止。 11月18日,原告自愿撤消了诉讼。[52] [53]

  1. 约翰逊诉本森(州最高法院)

2020年11月26日,Amistad项目[54]提交了Angelic Johnson等人的申请。诉Jocelyn Benson等人,呼吁密歇根州最高法院的一项特别命令终止认证选举结果[55]。 无结果。

  1. 金诉惠特默

2020年11月25日,一群选民在美国密歇根州东区地方法院针对Gretchen Whitmer,密歇根州州长和其他州官员提起诉讼。原告指称各种违反《选举法》的行为,并作为一种补救措施,要求法院取消该州的选举结果或为特朗普胜选认证。[56] [57]这是保守派律师西德尼·鲍威尔(Sidney Powell)提起的“ Kraken”(大海怪)案之一。[58]

12月7日,琳达·帕克(Linda V. Parker)法官否决了原告诉求,称这“极大地损害选民的公共利益”,并且“船已经航行了(认证结果已经送往国会)”。帕克进一步指出,原告只提供了“理论,猜想和推测”,以期表明潜在的投票转换。法官认为,原告提起诉讼的真正动机不是要赢得诉讼,而是要动摇“人们对民主进程的信任和对我们政府的信任。” [59] [58] [60]

12月11日,原告向美国最高法院提出了一份上诉书。[26]

  1. 底特律市Stoddard诉城市选举委员会

保守派选举诚信基金会于11月3日在密歇根州第三联邦巡回法院提起诉讼,要求采取强制性补救行动,命令底特律选举工作者停止“修正”缺席选民的投票。[61]首席法官蒂莫西·肯尼(Timothy Kenny)于11月6日拒绝了禁制令的动议,[62]法官认定原告“没有提供任何宣誓证词或特定的目击者人证来证实其主张……原告的指控仅是推测。原告的诉求没有提出法定的理由。” [63] [44]法官指出,原告指称存在“恶意,欺诈性动机”,但“原告对发生的事件的解释是不正确且不可信的。” [64]肯尼(Kenny)法官做出裁决后,密歇根州总检察长达娜·内塞尔(Dana Nessel)发表声明说,密歇根州“始终致力于进行公正,透明和安全的选举,确保每一次合法投票都得到计数”。[65]

威斯康星州  2020美国大选后诉讼

  1. Feehan诉威斯康星州选举委员会

2020年12月1日,拉克罗斯县共和党主席比尔·费恩在联邦法院对威斯康星州选举委员会提起诉讼。[45]由保守派律师西德尼·鲍威尔(Sidney Powell)代表的原告声称,在整个美国提供投票软件和硬件的公司Dominion Voting Systems和Smartmatic被用来为Joe Biden进行电子投票和改票。原告还声称“无法计数的选民宣布自己被非法剥夺选票, 现场/场缺席选民的投票被宣布无效,办事员非法填写缺席选民的地址。” [46]作为一种补救措施,原告要求法院取消该州的选举结果,宣布唐纳德·特朗普为该州的获胜者,或宣布有关的缺席选票无效。然而该诉状包含许多拼写错误和事实错误。在原告名单中列出的共和党参议员候选人德里克·范·奥尔登(Derrick Van Orden),他输了他的种选举。但是范·奥尔登(Van Orden)说,他未发出许可被列为诉讼人。诉讼还要求调取TCF中心的点票过程录像,然而该中心并不位于威斯康星州,而是位于密歇根州[46] [47] [48] [49][50] [51] 

12月2日,美国地方法院法官帕米拉·佩珀(Pamela Pepper)发出命令,指出原告提交的诉状不符合基本格式和规则,也没有提出要求举行听证会或提出庭审的时间表。[50] [51]

12月9日,佩珀地区法院法官驳回了该案,并写道“联邦法院无权或授权给予其原告寻求的诉求”。代表原告的诉讼是“有时是怪异的,而且经常是混乱的”,最终未能确定为什么向联邦法院提告是适当的。法官还反复指出,原告没有法律依据提起诉讼。法官得出结论,满足原告的诉求将违反《宪法》。[52]

  1. Langenhorst诉Pecore

2020年11月11日,三名居民对位于威斯康星州东区格林贝分区的Menominee县,Dane县和密尔沃基县的选举官员提起诉讼。原告对这三个县的大选提出了质疑,其中包括“无限地定义行为受限选民”。尽管州最高法院已经裁定“(包括大流行情况的建议)在法律上是不正确的”,但这种解释在今年仍然导致缺席选票的激增。此外,选票证人签名要求也被放宽了。因此,原告诉求这3个县的选票(估计有80万张)无效。[53] [54]特朗普竞选活动还声称,有三名在选举日之前合法投了缺席票的人在此期间死亡。

对此威斯康星州选举委员会的安·雅各布斯(Ann Jacobs)表示:“他们几人都是在投票后死亡,所以他们在投票时还活着。伴随着冠状病毒的肆虐,任何人都不应对此感到特别惊讶,这确实是正常的。人们是在死亡,每个月在威斯康星州都有人死亡。” [55]

之后原告于11月16日放弃了诉讼。[56]

  1. 穆勒诉雅各布斯案

2020年11月27日,律师Karen L. Mueller代表其丈夫,Chippewa Falls县的Dean W. Mueller向威斯康星州最高法院提出诉讼。原告穆勒声称,威斯康星州选举委员会鼓励在没有规则制定权的情况下,通过投送箱收集缺席选票。穆勒(Mueller)要求法院宣布在收票箱中收集的选票无效,其数目尚不清楚;或举行重新选举; [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62]或以其他方式阻止对州选举结果的证明,(乔·拜登在那里赢得了约20,000票),再或宣布全州选票无效,指令州议会任命选举团。

12月3日,威斯康星州最高法院以4-3的裁决驳回了申诉。[63]法院的保守派法官们,包括首席法官德雷克·罗根西萨克,均对裁决表示异议,并说:“法院不能继续推卸其对威斯康星州人民的制度性的责任。” [64] 

  1. 特朗普诉拜登

2020年12月7日,特朗普竞选活动在州法院针对密尔沃基和戴恩县的选举官员提起诉讼,力图使总统选举结果无效。[65]

12月11日,斯蒂芬·西马内克(Stephen Simanek)法官作出了对被告有利的裁决,指明原告未能证明威斯康星州在其重新点票中违反了其“提前投票法”。[66]此外,西马内克(Simanek)法官裁定“没有行为不端或大规模欺诈的可靠证据”。[67]因此,地方法院“确认”了威斯康星州总统选举结果的认证,包括戴恩县和密尔沃基县的重新计票。[68]

在迅速对该裁决提出上诉之后,[66] [67] [68]威斯康星州最高法院于12月14日对该案作出裁定,以4-3票赞成,确认了地区法院的裁决。[69]根据多数法官的说法,原告企图使28,000张无限制缺席选票无效的尝试是“毫无根据的”,并且“没有任何理由或法律依据”。[70]同样,根据多数法官的意见,拒绝了原告其他三项使选票无效的企图:原告拖延提起诉讼“是极端的和不合理的”。[71] [72]

2020年12月29日,朱利安尼(Giuliani)援引《大纪元》(Epoch Times)发表的一个被揭穿的(投票机)阴谋论,向最高法院提起上诉。[73] [74]

  1. 特朗普诉埃弗斯

威斯康星州认证选举结果的第二天,即2020年12月1日,特朗普竞选团队在威斯康星州最高法院对威斯康星州州长托尼·埃弗斯(Tony Evers)和其他州选举官员提起诉讼。[75]原告声称:“选举工作人员非法更改缺席的投票信封,对没有符合要求的投票进行计数,忽视了无限制缺席票即为非法的主张,并举行了非法投票活动。”作为一种补救措施,他们要求法院取消该州选举结果的资格,并从计数中排除密尔沃基和戴恩县的221,000票。州长的法律团队于当天提出回应[76]说,这种做法在威斯康星州的选举中被广泛接受。此外,他们说,指控申诉的仅指技术性错误,根据联邦法律,选民不能因为“州法律上的非实质性错误或遗漏”而受到处罚。[47] [48] [77] [78] [79] [80 ] 2020年12月3日,法院在4-3的裁决定中驳回了请愿书,称该诉讼必须首先提交至州巡回法院。[81] [82] [83]

此后,特朗普竞选活动在该州巡回法院提起诉讼,[84]使威斯康星州成为唯一一个错过12月8日联邦选举“安全港”最后期限的州。[85]在截止日期之前通过认证,就确保所有州一级的点票和诉讼均已完成,这意味着国会必须接受州的选举人票,并且票数不能在国会中受到质疑。[85] [86] 12月10日,后备法官斯蒂芬·西马内克(Stephen Simanek)裁定特朗普败诉,并驳回该案。[87]

西马内克法官作出裁决后数小时,威斯康星州最高法院宣布同意审理此案,以使其省略上诉程序。[87] [88]在12月12日的口头辩论中,法院似乎由三位自由派的法官,丽贝卡·达莱特(Rebecca Dallet)和吉尔·卡洛夫克斯(Jill Karofksy)对特朗普竞选的论据表示怀疑,而三位保守派支持的法官-首席法官Patience Roggensack以及安妮特·齐格勒和丽贝卡布拉德利(Bradley)对竞选活动的主张表示某种程度的支持。[89] [90]而第四名保守派支持的大法官布莱恩·哈格多恩(Brian Hagedorn)的观点尚不明确。 辩论中Hagedorn法官大多数时间在听,并提出了一些技术问题。[89]

最终Hagedorn大法官在针对特朗普竞选活动的4-3裁决中写道,竞选活动团队诉讼前等待时间太长,现已无法提起合理诉讼,本应该在选举之前提出诉讼。[91]

本案裁定后,大法官卡洛夫斯基和达勒特收到了反对女性主义和反犹太主义的在线评论;新纳粹网站《每日风暴》(The Daily Stormer)突出了他们的犹太族裔。[92]裁定后遭到特朗普总统亲自批评的哈格多恩法官也遭到骚扰。对此威斯康星州总检察长罗根萨克(Roggensack)作出谴责,谴责大法官们面临的“实际或虚拟的暴力威胁”。[93]

  1. 特朗普诉威斯康星州选举委员会

2020年12月2日,唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)以总统候选人的身份在联邦地方法院对威斯康星州选举委员会提起诉讼。[94]竞选活动指控几名选举官员犯了违宪行为,[95] [96],由于处理缺席选票的原因,增加了选民欺诈的风险。[97]竞选运动对威斯康星州选举委员会的各种指示提出了质疑,并声称一项由密尔沃基,麦迪逊,基诺沙,格林贝和拉辛市市长们制定的设置缺席投票箱的计划在执行时没有采取适当的安全措施。[95] [ 97]竞选运动还对宣告自己“无限制缺席”的那些没有出示带有照片证件的投票者的选票提出了挑战。[97] [98]对于受到挑战的威斯康星州选举委员会政策,证人指证该政策于2016年发布,并于2020年更新; 2020年3月宣布了关于COVID-19大流行期间“无限期受限”选民身份资格标准的政策;允许缺席投票箱的政策于2020年8月颁布。[99]作为补救措施,特郎普竞选活动要求法院推翻选举结果,并将此事发送给州议会,决定选举团人选。[95] [96]

12月12日,特朗普任命的美国地方法院法官布雷特·路德维希(Brett Ludwig)以怀有偏见为由驳回了该案。路德维希法官将该案诉求描述为“非同寻常”,并寻求“甚至更为非同寻常”的补救措施。法官裁定特朗普竞选活动的指控“有违法律条款和事实”,而事实证明恰恰相反:威斯康星州的总统选举人完全按照威斯康星州议会的意图确定,因为威斯康星州议会已下令进行威斯康星州的选举委员会决定选举规则。法官还指出,由于诉讼是关于“选举管理的有争议问题”的做法,因此特朗普本可以在投票发生之前提起诉讼,但没有这样做。法官得出结论认为,特朗普在此案中“失于法理”。[100] [101]

特朗普向美国第七巡回上诉法院提起上诉,该法院由三名法官组成的小组一致“认可”了地方法院的裁决。[35]法官小组裁定特朗普的“对选举人条款的主张是失败的”,因为威斯康星州立法机构授予了威斯康星州选举委员会“权力”来管理选举,因此不存在违反宪法的行为:威斯康星州的总统选举人“被合法任命为其选举人”,是以威斯康星州立法机关指示的方式。[35] [102] [103]特朗普的主张也因“潜在的违反宪法”的“不合理拖延”而失败;法官裁定,提起如此晚的诉讼将对威斯康星州选民权利造成“无疑的伤害”。[103] [104]上诉法院的裁决是由特朗普任命的迈克尔·史考德(Michael Scudder Jr.)法官撰写的,而其他两位法官乔尔·弗洛姆(Joel Flaum)和伊拉娜·罗夫纳(Ilana Rovner)也是由所共和党任命。[35] [104]

  1. 威斯康星州选民联盟诉威斯康星州选举委员会

2020年11月23日,一群共和党选民联盟在威斯康星州最高法院对威斯康星州选举委员会提起诉讼。选民们说,由马克·扎克伯格资助的组织–技术与公民生活中心向格林贝,麦迪逊和密尔沃基等城市捐赠了600万美元,以便利进行成千上万的非法邮寄投票。该组织表示,如果不包括这些选票,特朗普将赢得该州的选举。作为补救措施,他们要求法院停止对选举的认证,允许州议会任命选举团,并命令州长对这些选举人进行认证。州检察长乔什·考尔(Josh Kaul)第二天发表声明,称诉讼旨在剥夺选民的选举权,他的部门“将确保威斯康星州的总统选举人是根据投票的超过300万威斯康星州选民的意愿选出的。 “ [105] [106] [107] 12月4日,法院驳回了诉讼书,大法官布莱恩·哈格多恩(Brian Hagedorn)写道:“一旦打开宣布总统选举结果司法无效的大门,将很难再次关闭那扇门,“这是我们被要求践踏选举程序的危险道路。” [108] [109]

***********************

内华达州2020大选诉讼

  1. 贝克尔诉坎尼扎罗

2020年11月19日,共和党州参议院候选人贝克尔(April Becker)对民主党现任议员妮可·坎尼扎罗(Nicole Cannizzaro)提起诉讼,要求举行新的选举。贝克尔(Becker)挑战使用投票机统计处理邮寄选票。

第二天,原告自愿撤诉。[17] [18]

  1. 贝克诉格洛里亚

2020年11月16日,共和党州参议院候选人April Becker在州法院对克拉克县选民登记官Joseph P. Gloria提起诉讼,要求举行新的选举。贝克尔(Becker)质疑将选票邮寄给所有已登记的选民,并使用自动软件Agilis来验证签名,认为州法律要求对签名进行人工审查。 [19] [20] [21]

在11月24日,法院无异意驳回了原告的请求。

  1. 内华达州选举诚信项目诉内华的州政府

2020年11月16日,内华达州选举诚信项目对内华达州提起诉讼,声称发现了“广泛的证据”表明选民欺诈。原告要求取消选举结果,并下令重新进行选举。[22] 

11月20日,克拉克县地方法院法官格洛里亚·斯特曼(Gloria Sturman)拒绝了该请求,称其为“令人震惊的要求”。[23]

  1. Law诉Whitmer

内华达州共和党和特朗普竞选于2020年11月17日在卡森市内华达州第一司法地区法院提起了Law 诉Whitmer案[24]。为拜登(Biden)投票的六名选举团被称为被告,诉讼要求要么将全部六名选举人转向给特朗普,要么取消选举结果。 [25]据《拉斯维加斯评论报》 [25]称,该诉讼使用了“许多在地方法院在先前的诉讼中已经拒绝的相同声索,包括不当使用签名验证机和不公平的观察规则”等。[25]

11月25日,一名法官允许特朗普竞选活动在选举中提供其欺诈证据。法官将听证会定于12月3日举行,允许进行15次陈述。[26] 

12月4日,法院驳回了原告的请求,并说:“原告方没有以任何证据证明,由于任何不当或非法原因,已经进行了非法的点票和计票,或者根本不合法的点票,使得异常票数额等于或大于33,596的数额,或其他足以引起对选举结果产生合理怀疑的数额。” [27]

12月8日,内华达州最高法院一致确认地方法院的裁决,[28] [29]写道:“我们不认为该地方法院在判定明确而有说服力的举证责任上犯有任何错误,因而支持地方法院裁决令。” [30]

  1. Marchant诉Gloria

2020年11月16日,吉姆·马尚(Jim Marchant)对克拉克县选民登记官约瑟夫·P·格洛里亚(Joseph P. Gloria)提起诉讼,要求举行新的选举。共和党国会候选人马尚(Marchant)对民主党现任史蒂文·霍斯福德(Steven Horsford)的竞选失败。 Marchant指控说,选票上的签名被使用计算机系统进行了验证,而内华达州法律要求签名验证必须由人类进行。 11月23日,克拉克县地方法院法官格洛里亚·斯特曼(Gloria Sturman)以管辖权问题为由驳回了该案。[31] [32]

  1. Rodimer诉Gloria

2020年11月19日,丹·罗迪默(Dan Rodimer)在州法院对克拉克县选举官员约瑟夫·P·格洛里亚(Joseph P. Gloria)提起诉讼,要求举行新的选举。 Rodimer是一名国会候选人,但输给了民主党代表Susie Lee,他声称邮寄选票上的签名是使用计算机系统进行验证的,而内华达州法律则要求人员进行签名验证。[33]该案已移交给克拉克县地方法院法官格洛里亚·斯特曼(Gloria Sturman);原告提出了两项 动议,要求斯图尔曼法官退出该案,称她与民主党的关系“使她过于偏颇,无法主持该案。”首席法官琳达·玛丽·贝尔(Linda Marie Bell)将案件重新分配,但指出“记录中没有任何内容反映出斯特曼法官对罗迪默先生的偏见,这将妨碍斯特曼法官对此案做出裁决。”该诉讼是由律师克雷格·穆勒(Craig Mueller)提起的,他因失去共和党候选人而提出了类似的诉讼。[34]在11月25日的听证会上,特雷弗·阿特金法官以法院缺乏管辖权和诉状格式问题为由,驳回了该案。[35]

  1. Stokke诉Cegavske

2020年11月5日,原告吉尔·斯托克(Jill Stokke),克里斯·普鲁德霍姆(Chris Prudhome),美国国会议员马尚(Marchant)和国会议员罗迪默(Rodimer)起诉国务卿芭芭拉·塞格夫斯克和克拉克县选举官员约瑟夫·P·格洛里亚。最初的申诉于2020年11月5日向美国内华达州地方法院提出,指控被告涉及“违反选举条款”,“违反平等保护条款”(可强制执行)三项的“非法行为”。分别违反《美国法典》第18条第1983款)和“《内华达州立法规》第§§293.8881和293.363条”。申诉在违反州法和联邦法的15项指控中提到“ 3,000多个不合格的个人进行了投票” [36]。

该案最初分配给格洛丽亚·纳瓦罗(Gloria M. Navarro)法官,在纳瓦罗法官在提起申诉的当天宣布回避本案后,又重新分配给安德鲁·戈登(Andrew P. Gordon)法官。

2020年11月5日,原告律师提出了一项紧急临时限制令和初步禁令的动议,禁止被告违反内华达州法律(进行计票和认证选票),《选举条款》和《宪法》的平等保护条款,原告列出了14项指控,包括在克拉克县使用的签名验证软件Agilis。[37]原告还提出了加快听证会和情况通报的动议,该动议于11月6日获得戈登法官的批准;但是他不同意原告的主张,即在有合理的限制令或临时禁令的情况下,被告的行为造成了“无法弥补的”伤害,因此,他于当天拒绝了发出临时限制令和初步禁令的动议。

戈登法官于2020年11月9日签署命令,批准了关于Abha Khanna,John M. Devaney和Bradley S. Schrager三位律师的临时文件。在涉入内华达州案之前,位于西雅图和华盛顿特区的上述律师需要得到法院的许可。根据法院文件,内华达州共和党和民主党全国委员会聘请了Perkins Coie律师代表被告。

该案于2020年11月30日被原告撤销。[38]

(有关大选日之前提起的诉讼,请参阅词条: 与2020年美国总统大选有关的大选前诉讼。)

 

参考文献

 

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    宾夕法尼亚
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参考文献

威斯康星州

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参考文献

内华达州

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